Honey is often mentioned in the context of enzyme content due to their impact on organoleptic properties and the effect of such honey on human health. The aim and task of the paper was to collect expert and scientific information describing enzymes in honey and to compile them in an overview and clarify their functions. There are various types of enzymes present in honey, of which the most important are diastase (α-, β-, γ-amylase), invertase, acid phosphatase, catalase, gluco-oxidase and others. Diastase activity is key in quality analysis, determination of freshness, conditions of production and storage of honey. Diastase is most often analysed in honey. Diastase values decrease if falsified by adding inverted sugar, hydrolysed starch or high-fructose syrup (HFCS). Invertase is an enzyme which hydrolyses sucrose to glucose and fructose, and originates from nectar and bee enzymes. Invertase is considered responsible for chemical reactions during nectar maturation and honey production. Acid phosphatase is mainly found in pollen, but is also an integral part of nectar. It is predominant in fermented honey. Its activity depends on the pH – the higher the pH, the greater the activity of the acid phosphatase. Catalase degrades hydrogen peroxide and reduces the bactericidal effect of honey, and gluco-oxidase originates from the bee, leading to the oxidation of glucose in immature honey. Honey also contains a variety of proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and others. Enzymes have several important functions, namely the preservation of organoleptic properties and the freshness of honey, preserving the consistency of honey. In addition, enzymes also give honey antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
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