Cereal grains are a major source of dietary energy and nutrients worldwide. Gluten proteins from wheat (prolamins and glutelins) play a crucial role in the bakery industry. However, gluten also causes a negative response in a small subset of the population which suffers from coeliac disease. This is one reason for the incorporation of alternative crops into the human diet. Pseudocereals and legumes, which have a high nutritional value and a low content of prolamins, may be suitable substitutes. The aim of this study was to analyse a group of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes according to the composition of their proteins and their possible application in a gluten-free diet. We determined the total nitrogen content (and crude protein content), as well as the coefficient of nutritional quality and the fractional composition of proteins. The results showed that the crude protein content varies from 9.89% to 21.5%, while the highest protein content was found in legumes. Nutritional quality was based on the coefficient of nutritional quality. The highest value of the coefficient of nutritional quality was calculated in peas. The representation of storage proteins indicates the technological quality of the seeds. In this regard, the best technological quality was found in wheat.
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